Your step number 1 could turn into being a bigger problem in the future. He isn't being bad, you probably aren't reading his cues (pacing, whining, sniffing are all cues). If he becomes fearful that he is being bad or going to get in trouble, he'll end up going off in a corner or behind something where you won't see him…and that will be a much tougher problem to solve.
The best thing possible is to catch him in the act. If you catch him in the act peeing, make a noise (say "eh", drop a book, something like that...just don't yell at him) it will distract him and many times stop him in the act...immediately pick him up take him out and he will finish outside...praise him as he is going (potty, potty, good potty - or whatever word you want to use). Treat immediately after he is finished...if you treat say once he gets to the door, the connection will be "go to the door, get a treat". You want it to be "potty outside, get a treat". By using a word like potty, once he makes the association with the word, you'll say the word and he will start to sniff outside when you say it.
One thing I've also done, is if I catch one in the act, I've picked the dog up without saying a word (the shock of that stops them midstream) and immediately taken the dog outside (as I'm walking out the door I say outside) and they finish their business outside. In fact, I only ever had Brando (and Brando is intact) pee in the house once and I caught him, picked him up and brought him outside...he never did it again. I think it took 2 times of me picking Ruby up midstream and she never did it again. Ruby did it when she first got here (2 yrs old), and Brando did the same when he first got here (3 yrs old).
If he messes inside and you don't see it, you shouldn't do anything because he won't understand what he is being punished or reprimanded for. Also, I've been told that you shouldn't clean the mess up with the dog in the same room...that way he won't read the anger from you (that is how I've always handled it).
Until the problem is solved, you might want to also tether him to you so that he isn't out of your sight...certainly he shouldn't have the run of the house. Take him out more often to give him more of an opportunity to do it right. You might think 3 times is enough for him, but maybe right now he needs 5 or 10.
Oh, and as Kanaga said, routine seems to be best for dogs...and the problem is probably do to moving to a new home. I'm sure he can be retrained. Have you talked to his foster parent to find out about peeing in his previous home.